Parchment is still the only medium used by traditional religious Jews for Torah scrolls or tefilin and mezuzahs , and is produced by large companies in Israel. For those uses, only hides of kosher animals are permitted. Since there are many requirements for it being fit for the religious use, the liming is usually processed under supervision of a qualified Rabbi.
In some universities, the word parchment is still used to refer to the certificate scroll presented at graduation ceremonies, even though the modern document is printed on paper or thin card; although doctoral graduates may be given the option of having their scroll written by a calligrapher on vellum.
The University of Notre Dame still uses animal parchment for its diplomas. Similarly, University of Glasgow and Heriot-Watt University use goat skin parchment for their degrees. Vegetable paper parchment is made by passing a waterleaf an unsized paper like blotters made of pulp fibers into sulfuric acid.
The sulfuric acid hydrolyses and solubilises the main natural organic polymer, cellulose, present in the pulp wood fibers. The paper web is then washed in water, which stops the hydrolysis of the cellulose and causes a kind of cellulose coating to form on the waterleaf.
The final paper is dried. This coating is a natural non-porous cement, that gives to the vegetable parchment paper its resistance to grease and its semi-translucency. Other processes can be used to obtain grease-resistant paper, such as waxing the paper or using fluorine -based chemicals.
Highly beating the fibers gives an even more translucent paper with the same grease resistance. Silicone and other coatings may also be applied to the parchment. A silicone -coating treatment produces a cross-linked material with high density, stability and heat resistance and low surface tension which imparts good anti-stick or release properties.
Chromium salts can also be used to impart moderate anti-stick properties. Historians believe that parchment craft originated as an art form in Europe during the fifteenth or sixteenth century.
The craft developed over time, with new techniques and refinements being added. Until the sixteenth century, parchment craft was a European art form. However, missionaries and other settlers relocated to South America, taking parchment craft with them.
As before, the craft appeared largely among the Catholic communities. Often, young girls receiving their first communion received gifts of handmade parchment crafts. Although the invention of the printing press led to a reduced interest in hand made cards and items, by the eighteenth century, people were regaining interest in detailed handwork. Parchment cards became larger in size and crafters began adding wavy borders and perforations.
In the nineteenth century, influenced by French romanticism, parchment crafters began adding floral themes and cherubs and hand embossing. Parchment craft today involves various techniques, including tracing a pattern with white or colored ink, embossing to create a raised effect, stippling, perforating, coloring and cutting.
Parchment craft appears in hand made cards, as scrapbook embellishments, as bookmarks, lampshades, decorative small boxes, wall hangings and more. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Parchment disambiguation. Gevil , Klaf , and Duchsustus. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Conservation of Leather and Related Materials Repr ed.
The Book of Kells: Retrieved 23 May University of California Press. Archived from the original on 30 August Retrieved 4 January Contemporary Illumination The St. John's Bible , More Contemporary Illumination. For example of current parchment makers see: Ancient Skins Parchments and Leathers.
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