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❶Adherence to societal rules must be dependent on the justness of those rules and in light of the crime the Arab had been accused of, Daru likely felt some obligation to law and order.

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Albert Camus Short Fiction Analysis
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Or is he technically guilty? On the one hand, there seems to have been no conscious intention behind his action. Indeed the killing takes place almost as if by accident, with Meursault in a kind of absent-minded daze, distracted by the sun. From this point of view, his crime seems surreal and his trial and subsequent conviction a travesty. The significantly named Jean-Baptiste Clamence a voice in the wilderness calling for clemency and forgiveness is tortured by guilt in the wake of a seemingly casual incident.

While strolling home one drizzly November evening, he shows little concern and almost no emotional reaction at all to the suicidal plunge of a young woman into the Seine. But afterwards the incident begins to gnaw at him, and eventually he comes to view his inaction as typical of a long pattern of personal vanity and as a colossal failure of human sympathy on his part. Wracked by remorse and self-loathing, he gradually descends into a figurative hell. In the final sections of the novel, amid distinctly Christian imagery and symbolism, he declares his crucial insight that, despite our pretensions to righteousness, we are all guilty.

Hence no human being has the right to pass final moral judgment on another. In a final twist, Clamence asserts that his acid self-portrait is also a mirror for his contemporaries. Hence his confession is also an accusation—not only of his nameless companion who serves as the mute auditor for his monologue but ultimately of the hypocrite lecteur as well.

At heart a nature-worshipper, and by instinct a skeptic and non-believer, Camus nevertheless retained a lifelong interest and respect for Christian philosophy and literature. In particular, he seems to have recognized St. Augustine and Kierkegaard as intellectual kinsmen and writers with whom he shared a common passion for controversy, literary flourish, self-scrutiny, and self-dramatization.

Christian images, symbols, and allusions abound in all his work probably more so than in the writing of any other avowed atheist in modern literature , and Christian themes—judgment, forgiveness, despair, sacrifice, passion, and so forth—permeate the novels. Meursault and Clamence, it is worth noting, are presented not just as sinners, devils, and outcasts, but in several instances explicitly, and not entirely ironically, as Christ figures.

Meanwhile alongside and against this leitmotif of Christian images and themes, Camus sets the main components of his essentially pagan worldview. Like Nietzsche, he maintains a special admiration for Greek heroic values and pessimism and for classical virtues like courage and honor. What might be termed Romantic values also merit particular esteem within his philosophy: Can an absurd world have intrinsic value? Is authentic pessimism compatible with the view that there is an essential dignity to human life?

They are almost a hallmark of his philosophical style. Oracular and high-flown, they clearly have more rhetorical force than logical potency. Surprisingly, the sentiment here, a commonplace of the Enlightenment and of traditional liberalism, is much closer in spirit to the exuberant secular humanism of the Italian Renaissance than to the agnostic skepticism of contemporary post-modernism.

A primary theme of early twentieth-century European literature and critical thought is the rise of modern mass civilization and its suffocating effects of alienation and dehumanization. This became a pervasive theme by the time Camus was establishing his literary reputation. Anxiety over the fate of Western culture, already intense, escalated to apocalyptic levels with the sudden emergence of fascism, totalitarianism, and new technologies of coercion and death.

He responded to the occasion with typical force and eloquence. Even his concept of the Absurd becomes multiplied by a social and economic world in which meaningless routines and mind-numbing repetitions predominate. The drudgery of Sisyphus is mirrored and amplified in the assembly line, the business office, the government bureau, and especially in the penal colony and concentration camp. In line with this theme, the ever-ambiguous Meursault in The Stranger can be understood as both a depressing manifestation of the newly emerging mass personality that is, as a figure devoid of basic human feelings and passions and, conversely, as a lone hold-out, a last remaining specimen of the old Romanticism—and hence a figure who is viewed as both dangerous and alien by the robotic majority.

Similarly, The Plague can be interpreted, on at least one level, as an allegory in which humanity must be preserved from the fatal pestilence of mass culture, which converts formerly free, autonomous, independent-minded human beings into a soulless new species. It was, above all, a shrewd, unflagging adversary; a skilled organizer, doing his work thoroughly and well.

Clad in a gaudy military uniform bedecked with ribbons and decorations, the character Plague a satirical portrait of Generalissimo Francisco Franco—or El Caudillo as he liked to style himself is closely attended by his personal Secretary and loyal assistant Death, depicted as a prim, officious female bureaucrat who also favors military garb and who carries an ever-present clipboard and notebook.

So Plague is a fascist dictator, and Death a solicitous commissar. Together these figures represent a system of pervasive control and micro-management that threatens the future of mass society. In his reflections on this theme of post-industrial dehumanization, Camus differs from most other European writers and especially from those on the Left in viewing mass reform and revolutionary movements, including Marxism, as representing at least as great a threat to individual freedom as late-stage capitalism.

Throughout his career he continued to cherish and defend old-fashioned virtues like personal courage and honor that other Left-wing intellectuals tended to view as reactionary or bourgeois. In Caligula the mad title character, in a fit of horror and revulsion at the meaninglessness of life, would rather die—and bring the world down with him—than accept a cosmos that is indifferent to human fate or that will not submit to his individual will.

Like Wittgenstein who had a family history of suicide and suffered from bouts of depression , Camus considered suicide the fundamental issue for moral philosophy. However, unlike other philosophers who have written on the subject from Cicero and Seneca to Montaigne and Schopenhauer , Camus seems uninterested in assessing the traditional motives and justifications for suicide for instance, to avoid a long, painful, and debilitating illness or as a response to personal tragedy or scandal.

Indeed, he seems interested in the problem only to the extent that it represents one possible response to the Absurd. His verdict on the matter is unqualified and clear: Executions by guillotine were a common public spectacle in Algeria during his lifetime, but he refused to attend them and recoiled bitterly at their very mention.

Condemnation of capital punishment is both explicit and implicit in his writings. The grim rationality of this process of legalized murder contrasts markedly with the sudden, irrational, almost accidental nature of his actual crime.

Similarly, in The Myth of Sisyphus , the would-be suicide is contrasted with his fatal opposite, the man condemned to death, and we are continually reminded that a sentence of death is our common fate in an absurd universe. Like Victor Hugo, his great predecessor on this issue, he views the death penalty as an egregious barbarism—an act of blood riot and vengeance covered over with a thin veneer of law and civility to make it acceptable to modern sensibilities. That it is also an act of vengeance aimed primarily at the poor and oppressed, and that it is given religious sanction, makes it even more hideous and indefensible in his view.

To all who argue that murder must be punished in kind, Camus replies:. For there to be an equivalency, the death penalty would have to punish a criminal who had warned his victim of the date on which he would inflict a horrible death on him and who, from that moment onward, had confined him at his mercy for months. Such a monster is not to be encountered in private life. Camus concludes his essay by arguing that, at the very least, France should abolish the savage spectacle of the guillotine and replace it with a more humane procedure such as lethal injection.

But he still retains a scant hope that capital punishment will be completely abolished at some point in the time to come: Camus is often classified as an existentialist writer, and it is easy to see why. Affinities with Kierkegaard and Sartre are patent. He shares with these philosophers and with the other major writers in the existentialist tradition, from Augustine and Pascal to Dostoyevsky and Nietzsche an habitual and intense interest in the active human psyche, in the life of conscience or spirit as it is actually experienced and lived.

Like these writers, he aims at nothing less than a thorough, candid exegesis of the human condition, and like them he exhibits not just a philosophical attraction but also a personal commitment to such values as individualism, free choice, inner strength, authenticity, personal responsibility, and self-determination.

However, one troublesome fact remains: Was this an accurate and honest self-assessment? In their view, Camus qualifies as, at minimum, a closet existentialist, and in certain respects e. On the other hand, besides his personal rejection of the label, there appear to be solid reasons for challenging the claim that Camus is an existentialist. Of course there is no rule that says an existentialist must be a metaphysician. Another point of divergence is that Camus seems to have regarded existentialism as a complete and systematic world-view, that is, a fully articulated doctrine.

In his view, to be a true existentialist one had to commit to the entire doctrine and not merely to bits and pieces of it , and this was apparently something he was unwilling to do.

A further point of separation, and possibly a decisive one, is that Camus actively challenged and set himself apart from the existentialist motto that being precedes essence. Ultimately, against Sartre in particular and existentialists in general, he clings to his instinctive belief in a common human nature.

In his view human existence necessarily includes an essential core element of dignity and value, and in this respect he seems surprisingly closer to the humanist tradition from Aristotle to Kant than to the modern tradition of skepticism and relativism from Nietzsche to Derrida the latter his fellow-countryman and, at least in his commitment to human rights and opposition to the death penalty, his spiritual successor and descendant.

He truly lived his philosophy; thus it is in his personal political stands and public statements as well as in his books that his views are clearly articulated. In short, he bequeathed not just his words but also his actions. The result is something like a cross between Hemingway a Camus favorite and Melville another favorite or between Diderot and Hugo. For the most part when we read Camus we encounter the plain syntax, simple vocabulary, and biting aphorism typical of modern theatre or noir detective fiction.

However, this base style frequently becomes a counterpoint or springboard for extended musings and lavish descriptions almost in the manner of Proust. It is also a moral and political statement.

It says, in effect, that the life of reason and the life of feeling need not be opposed; that intellect and passion can, and should, operate together. Perhaps the greatest inspiration and example that Camus provides for contemporary readers is the lesson that it is still possible for a serious thinker to face the modern world with a full understanding of its contradictions, injustices, brutal flaws, and absurdities with hardly a grain of hope, yet utterly without cynicism. To read Camus is to find words like justice, freedom, humanity, and dignity used plainly and openly, without apology or embarrassment, and without the pained or derisive facial expressions or invisible quotation marks that almost automatically accompany those terms in public discourse today.

At Stockholm Camus concluded his Nobel acceptance speech with a stirring reminder and challenge to modern writers: Albert Camus — Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, philosophical essayist, and Nobel laureate. Yet, as he indicated in his acceptance speech at Stockholm, he considered his own career as still in mid-flight, with much yet to accomplish and even greater writing challenges ahead: Camus, Philosophical Literature, and the Novel of Ideas To pin down exactly why and in what distinctive sense Camus may be termed a philosophical writer, we can begin by comparing him with other authors who have merited the designation.

Drama Camus began his literary career as a playwright and theatre director and was planning new dramatic works for film, stage, and television at the time of his death. Philosophy To re-emphasize a point made earlier, Camus considered himself first and foremost a writer un ecrivain. Background and Influences Though he was baptized, raised, and educated as a Catholic and invariably respectful towards the Church, Camus seems to have been a natural-born pagan who showed almost no instinct whatsoever for belief in the supernatural.

Themes and Ideas Regardless of whether he is producing drama, fiction, or non-fiction, Camus in his mature writings nearly always takes up and re-explores the same basic philosophical issues. Guilt and Innocence Throughout his writing career, Camus showed a deep interest in questions of guilt and innocence.

History and Mass Culture A primary theme of early twentieth-century European literature and critical thought is the rise of modern mass civilization and its suffocating effects of alienation and dehumanization.

To all who argue that murder must be punished in kind, Camus replies: Existentialism Camus is often classified as an existentialist writer, and it is easy to see why. References and Further Reading a. Works by Albert Camus The Stranger. The Myth of Sisyphus and other Essays. A philosophical meditation on suicide originally published as Le Mythe de Sisyphe by Librairie Gallimard in Exile and the Kingdom.

Lyrical and Critical Essays. He would have to push a rock up a mountain; upon reaching the top, the rock would roll down again, leaving Sisyphus to start over. Camus sees Sisyphus as the absurd hero who lives life to the fullest, hates death, and is condemned to a meaningless task.

Camus is interested in Sisyphus' thoughts when marching down the mountain, to start anew. After the stone falls back down the mountain Camus states that "It is during that return, that pause, that Sisyphus interests me.

A face that toils so close to stones is already stone itself! I see that man going back down with a heavy yet measured step toward the torment of which he will never know the end. He does not have hope, but "there is no fate that cannot be surmounted by scorn. Camus claims that when Sisyphus acknowledges the futility of his task and the certainty of his fate, he is freed to realize the absurdity of his situation and to reach a state of contented acceptance.

With a nod to the similarly cursed Greek hero Oedipus , Camus concludes that "all is well," indeed, that "one must imagine Sisyphus happy. The essay contains an appendix titled "Hope and the Absurd in the work of Franz Kafka ".

While Camus acknowledges that Kafka's work represents an exquisite description of the absurd condition, he maintains that Kafka fails as an absurd writer because his work retains a glimmer of hope. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For mythology regarding the Greek character Sisyphus, see Sisyphus.

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This article includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. Because inner faith can reject outer ethics, the inner gains a place of supremacy over the outer, and the particular experience must be seen as the main constituent of reality. An individual determines their own relationship to the universal based on their relationship to the inward looking absolute.

In the Stranger, Mersault at first find only the rejection of the universal,…… [Read More]. Guest by Albert Camus Is. This story also made me sad, because the schoolteacher was really a good man. It also said a lot about the culture of the area, and how the whites and the Arabs get along. There are times when the schoolteacher fears the Arab, and does not like him, but he still sees him as a human, with feelings and needs. That is more than many people see when two cultures clash, and it seems like the schoolteacher was trying to be as fair as he possibly could.

It made me think about what I would do in a similar situation. I would hope that I would be as fair as the schoolteacher, but that the entire situation would turn out better. It also made me think about all the stories we have read so far.

They are all very different, and yet they all have common threads that tie them…… [Read More]. Camus The Guest Schoolteacher Struggles. At the same time, Daru did not openly encourage the Arab to escape.

Adherence to societal rules must be dependent on the justness of those rules and in light of the crime the Arab had been accused of, Daru likely felt some obligation to law and order. Daru lives literally between the confines of the rigid colonial social order and the vast wilderness of the Algerian desert. His geographical position parallels his internal conflict between his obligations as a French man and his obligations as a human being.

When Daru notes that "to hand him over was contrary to honor," he avers his belief in individual freedoms. On the other hand, the Arab's "stupid crime revolted him," because murder represented a breakdown of the fundamental bond of trust between human beings. Therefore, societal rules are irrelevant when they stem from prejudice and oppression but valid when they reflect the overarching…… [Read More]. Throughout his play, collective devastation is met with personal suffering. It is only when this becomes a shared suffering that it can become a collective way to redemption.

The divides of a war now over would give way to this shared experience for all peoples of France, charged with the responsibility of rebuilding. Indeed, this speaks much to the futility of war itself, as spoke by Camus when he resolves that "all a man could win in the conflict between plague and life was knowledge and memories" Camus, The viewpoint expressed here is in informed by the severity of orld ar II and the unprecedented global experience of attempting to be removed from this trauma.

In the resolution instigative of this discussion, we can see that Camus holds on to some sense that man is inherently more a good creature than a bad one, and that he is to…… [Read More]. Camus in the Book the. It is true that Grand changes over the book. He finds within himself the words to express himself and knows how he would act differently given the chance. He is redeemed at the end when he overcomes illness. However, it appears that the individuals who are the greatest heroes in real life are those who change the most when confronted with adversity.

This is because they are the ones who will help others change. They can be role models and encourage people to find something deep within themselves to deal with suffering, find love or destroy evil. Change agents are the ones who can motivate people to fight against the Hitlers and not be afraid of change inside or the world around them.

Who is this person who changes the most? As noted, Grand transformd, but not to an extreme. Nor is it Rieux who is always willing to help…… [Read More]. Camus the Search for Meaning. Camus begins his argument with a powerful statement about suicide, noting that it is the most important of all philosophical problems.

The question of suicide cuts to the core of whether life has any meaning. If life has no meaning then it only makes sense to end the life, and seek meaning elsewhere. Camus claims that accepting absurdity negates the function of suicide, and renders suicide itself an absurdity. To commit suicide is no different than perpetuating blind and useless faith in an abstract God. Both acts entail surrendering the personal will.

Suicide and blind faith both deny personal responsibility and instead project and expect meanings onto the universe. Camus' argument is self-empowering. Instead of having faith or hope, holding out for the revelation of true meaning, the individual has the…… [Read More].

Guest and Sonny's Blues Albert. Daru is still trying to cling to a sense of morality; yet, the Arab himself shows how this will not work in a world of uncertainty because after he is set free, he goes to the police station himself. James Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues" Topic 6 James Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues" is an interesting tale of a lost soul, who finds his solace and ability to express himself through the art of music.

Sonny lost both of his parents, and his brother was not there for him during the times he needed him the most. Sonny's brother did not understand his suffering, and as a result he turned his back on Sonny during his times of darkness.

Sonny was left alone in a world of darkness and he was not strong enough to deal with it in a healthier manner, as his brother did. Therefore, Baldwin writes "this life, whatever it was,…… [Read More]. Kant Camus Kant and Camus. If Kant's points are to be assimilated when adopting a moral stance which is consistent with man's dignity, such absolute terms are inevitably defined by dominant social structures, bringing us to the application of a normative theoretical structure.

The inextricable relationship which theology and morality have shared throughout history tends to have a tangible impact on the way these hegemonic standards are defined. And Kant, rejects any flexibility outright, however. Beyond its deviation from his established disposition toward moral absolutes, such variation violates Kant's maxim about man as an end rather than a means.

Man is to be the motive for moral acts, with his dignity defining right and wrong. Indeed, as he pointedly phrases it, "the laws of morality are laws according to which everything ought to happen; they allow for conditions under which what ought to happen doesn't happen. Like Kant, Camus asserts a clear…… [Read More]. Baldwin and Camus How Much. Balducci, a soldier who Daru knows, approaches with an Arab prisoner. Balducci's government papers give custody of the prisoner to Daru, who must now take him to the French jail in Tinguit.

Upset, Daru wishes to refuse. He does not want to become involved. Balducci likewise does not want to be in the lawmaker role. Daru understands that the Arab is being made a political example -- in other words, a guinea pig. He killed his cousin in a family feud, which is not a case for the French colonial courts but the involved families.

Daru accepts his charge, but relunctantly. By doing so, Daru is taking a clear position, defying the…… [Read More]. Heidiegger Camus Martin Heidegger's Being and Time addresses both of these complex philosophical concepts, being and time. Being means existence, or the fact that something can exist. Heidegger approaches the concept of being from multiple perspectives.

Being is the quality of existence, or the fact that something exists. Does this mean the opposite of Being is Nothingness? What does Heidegger say about anti-matter? Heidegger also probes the force that causes a thing or concept to come into being. It may only be possible to contemplate the quality or state of being if the thinker exists, meaning that a nothing cannot think about a something.

Heidegger comes close to suggesting the existence of a collective human soul, a grand Being, which he calls Dasein. The Dasein is not quite like the Nietzsche, but it is an archetypal super being that has the potential to contemplate existence. Moral Impermissibility of Abortion Albert. The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making.

Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but what if an unborn child has a soul and can actually feel pain? Isn't then artificial abortion a crime? Just because we are not sure, we should take the most radical solution that we can and are allowed to by law?

This is the first solid argument to sustain the moral impermissibility of induced abortion. Because having an abortion equals the death of a life growing inside, as a natural result of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is therefore considered that the new life, the fetus, did not have a choice. So, if it's about the right to chose and the freedom to decide…… [Read More]. Fall Camus's Story the Fall. Anyone who has considerably meditated on man, by profession or vocation, is led to feel nostalgia for the primates.

They at least don't have any ulterior motives. Truthfully, the story does little to present us with true authenticity, because the narrator himself never discovers it. The meaning of this story may seem very difficult to grasp if one makes the assumption that the narrator speaks for the author as a voice of wisdom and reason. Actually, no such assumption needs to be made. Camus is well-known for writing ironic works in which the speaker is not a mouth-piece for virtue.

A key to this work may be found in something which Camus wrote shortly before-hand regarding his falling-out with Sartre. Kierkegaard vs Camus in the. If dread enters as the knowledge that there is no knowledge from which to derive a decision, yet decision is all there is, then we reach a complicated idea of what comprises the individual. If there were a concrete and appreciable version of each person, ready at any time to assess, then the concept of dread would have less terrible implications.

The fact is, when penetrated by the nothing of pure possibility, the reach of this nothing is beyond almost all conception. There never really is an individual, just some ongoing process of change. The nothing alienates the individual further than from mere others and the world.

The nothing of dread brings into its fold, the individual. The individual supports this nothing and yet must determine itself on such grounds. Free Will and Deviant Behavior. The novel vividly illustrates this event, stated as follows: The scorching blade slashed at my eyelashes and stabbed at my stinging eyes.

That's when everything began to reel. The sea carried up a thick, fiery breath. It seemed to me as if the sky split open from one end to the other to rain down fire. My whole being tensed and I squeezed my hand around the revolver. The trigger gave; I felt the smooth underside of the butt; and there, in that noise, sharp and deafening at the same time, is where I tall started.

I shook off the sweat and sun. I knew that I had shattered the harmony of the day, the exceptional silence of a beach where I'd been happy. Then I fired four more times at the motionless body where the bullets lodged without leaving a trace.

And it was like knocking four quick times…… [Read More]. Myth Sisyphus the Myth of. The absurdity in Monty Python comedy sketches seem like a philosophical cousin to Albert Camus. Likewise, Camus is like a distant relative of Buddha. Buddhism asks the individual to cease striving and desiring everything and anything -- including enlightenment itself.

Life is suffering, says the Buddha, a concept that clearly reflects the punishment of Sisyphus. The root cause of suffering is not in the punishment, though, it is the desire to be set free or the desire to know why the punishment was meted. Elimination of the "uselessness of suffering," as Camus puts it, is the elimination of the desire for meaning.

Camus would note that Buddhism is the religion of the absurd, or a religion that acknowledges the absurd and attempts to ironically pierce through it or overcome it.

With a Buddhist outlook, Sisyphus simply rolls the rock up the hill more consciously. When the meaning of life is…… [Read More]. Politics Literature and the Arts. Franz Kafka portrayed a man named Gregor Samsa who became a grotesque creature, increasingly beset upon by his tiny and encloistered environment until he is transformed into a gigantic cockroach. Rather than focusing on the higher echelons of society, Kafka focused on its lower elements immediately.

Human Nature in Literature and. And, if one flees historical reality, then, is it not futile in that eventually it will catch up with us?

As a "guest" of this world, then, what is the basic responsibility we have towards humanity? Daru chooses an isolated and ascetic life -- he flees society, but society catches up with him, and it is his decision that allows him to become -- more human. Of true importance in this work is that the original title in French, L'hote means two things -- the guest, or the host. Thus, the title refers to the struggle of both the prisoner and the schoolmaster; giving the reader a moral guide that is less than logical, but historically practical Camus, In essence, it is representative of much of the Judaic culture -- the…… [Read More].

Guest, with its existential feel, is a Camus classic. The short story's setting is stark, as the author's words evoke the Algerian desert in the midst of a snowstorm. Sweeping landscapes of desert winter and stark, unpopulated terrain are part of what makes "The Guest" a story about isolation. However, the protagonist, Daru, has chosen to live here as a teacher.

His only contact with the outside world seems to be through his bags of grain, which symbolize civilization. Even his Corsican friend Balducci cannot rend Daru from his self-imposed solitude. Daru appreciates his secluded state and relishes the simple life. Therefore, the prisoner whom Balducci delivers to him is treated with kindness and compassion; like Daru, he too is a guest. But Daru does not identify with either the Arab or the French cause and therefore he cares not for the political implications of the prisoner's fate.

Instead, he…… [Read More]. Coping With Guilt in the. His final diatribe, regarding Empire does not absolve him, but instead accepts his own guilt in the indorination of feeling toward the desire to grow his empire. To him the only real innocence is the children, which he then realizes connects him to his paternal and incestuous love for the barbarian girl, who was the eventual cause of his demise, for it…… [Read More].

State of Nature General Will. General Will The ideas to create just and liberal society go all the way back to ancient times. The first examples of civil society were proposed by Plato and Aristotle, who saw the ideal state to be a republic ruled by the wise men and aristocrats as "first among equal.

These were the first discourses about the state where the harmony and equality established by the laws of nature will be preserved and developed. But the history shows that Greek republic failed under the pressure of power-gaining ome and Greek democracy was forgotten for centuries, but some of its principles preserved and where later developed by the philosophers of Enlightenment.

Enlightenment or renaissance of political thought and birth of civil political teachings was represented by a new idea of state, where the power was…… [Read More]. Alienation in Soldier's Home and. Both Krebs and Daru are also alienated because they are unable to adopt the philosophy of the cultures in which they exist.

Krebs comes from a religious household and a country that promotes ambition from men, yet he cannot accept God's existence, nor can he work up the enthusiasm to seek a job and make money.

Similarly, Daru is forced to turn in an Arab prisoner-of-war, yet he does not have the heart to force the Arab to do anything. Instead, he lets the Arab decide whether to turn himself in or to hide with rebels. The actions of Krebs and Daru are unusual because in most stories, the characters are ambitious and try to change their surroundings if they are unhappy within them. However, Krebs and Daru show no motivation for escaping their environments, and their lack of motivation reflects their alienation.

The narration of both stories is another…… [Read More]. Socrates, "The unexamined life is not worth living rdg. The examination of major life perspectives challenges as well as helps us to better establish many of our own assumptions about life rdg. We should all be concerned with how different views of the world clash or fit together, and with how the different perspectives moral, scientific, religious, metaphysical, and personal may be reconciled rdg.

It is with these ideas in mind that this paper undertakes an examination of three major life perspectives, those of: According to naturalism, heredity and environment influence and determine human motivation and behavior naturalism. Thus, if an artist wishes to depict life as it really is, he or she must be rigorously deterministic in…… [Read More]. It is key to understanding the author's view of love and even her own status as a woman and as a thinker.

Of course, the book can simply be read as a love story of infidelity and sexual liberty gone wrong in the face of an ever-changing political society in a state of national and European chaos. But the Mandarins de Beauvoir referred to were also the elite, the intellectual elites of Chinese society who held themselves above from the common peasants.

Thus, by calling her fellow Left Bank intellectuals 'Mandarins' De Beauvoir symbolically calls upon her fellow intellectuals to become part and parcel of the political fray, rather than wasting their energies with entangling personal alliances that can be just as dissipating as the betrayals of Vichy and the subsequent alliances that sapped the French nation of its own vital energies. She calls upon the intellectual Mandarins of French…… [Read More].

Life in a Godless World for as. Life in a Godless orld For as long as mankind has contemplated its own creation philosophers have pondered the meaning of life largely within the context of humanity's relationship to the divine, from Aristotle's metaphysical conception of God as all actuality to Descartes' systematic attempt to develop a proof of God's existence. The dominance of Christianity throughout much the civilized world invariably constrained the ability of great thinkers to challenge many of the religion's most fundamental precepts, from the concept of free will to the nature of good and evil, leaving much of the early philosophical canon regrettably limited by a reliance on unquestioned faith.

After the European Renaissance validated the structural foundations of scientific inquiry, the glaring inability to empirically observe God in any conceivable form prompted many to privately question the dogmatic assertions of the Pope and his church.

It wasn't until the momentous contribution of the German…… [Read More]. Modernism God the World and Literature The. Modernism God, the World, and Literature: The concept of social morality is such example of these ideologies extended thru literary works. Through literature, writers are able to provide people with varying themes related to the discussion of social morality, offering people avenues wherein morality can be created and developed by the society, and adapted by the individual.

Modern literature boasts itself of this kinds of art -- literary works that depict the life of individuals who were directly affected by their own or…… [Read More]. Nietzsche and Nihilism The World. Foremost, though, is the Nietzschian concept that freedom is never free -- there are costs; personal, societal, and spiritual.

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Camus’ “The Stranger” was published in the dark days of the World War II, during the Existentialist movement, along with the essay collection "The Myth of Sisyphus". Meursault is the protagonist of Camus' "The Stranger", (Camus) who conveys Camus' ideas of independence, freedom and life.

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- Albert Camus' The Myth of Sisyphus Albert Camus' essay, 'The Myth Of Sisyphus' is an insightful analysis of the classic work, 'The Myth Of Sisyphus'. In some regards Camus' view of Sisyphus can seem quite accurate and in tune with the original text, but based on Camus' interpretation of the justness of Sisyphus' punishment, it is clear that the writer .

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The Myth of Sisyphus (French: Le Mythe de Sisyphe) is a philosophical essay by Albert Camus. The English translation by Justin O'Brien was first published in The English translation by Justin O'Brien was first published in Oct 21,  · Words: Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Albert Camus' the Stranger Albert Camus' "The Stranger" (L'Etranger) is a story of how the protagonist Meursault is eventually condemned to die because he would not conform to what society expected of him.

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Albert Camus and The Absurd Essay - The Stranger, by Albert Camus, is the story of Meursault, a man who cares not for the future, nor the past. He lives without meaning, without rationality, without emotions. Start your hour free trial to unlock this + page Albert Camus study guide and get instant access to the following: Biography; Critical Essays; Analysis; 11 Homework Help Questions with Expert Answers; You'll also get access to more than 30, additional guides and , Homework Help questions answered by our experts.