We have given few extra points, you can choose the lines as per your requirements. In later part of the article, we have translated both sections in Hindi. If you looking for Hindi version kindly scroll down. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru the first prime minister of India was a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence. With Mahatma Gandhi , he paved the road for Indian independence.
His father Motilal Nehru was a prominent lawyer, an activist in Indian Independence Movement and a very important leader of Indian national congress. After coming back to India he joined Allahabad High Court. With time his interest shifted to national politics. By , he became a prominent leader in Indian National Congress. During this time Muslims League under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah also gained popularity and demand for the separate Muslim country also rose.
The power struggle between Nehru and Jinnah resulted in two countries and deadly massacre of partition in During his prime ministerial period, he drove India towards plural, secular, republic. He took the leading role in Non-Aligned Movement. Under Nehru, Congress won three consecutive elections in , and After the failure in Sino-Indian War his health started declining.
He died on 27th May due to a heart attack. He will be always remembered for his contribution. If you liked our efforts then kindly give us good rating , it helps us to do better. The flag of India was hoisted publicly across India by Congress volunteers, nationalists and the public. Plans for a mass civil disobedience were also underway.
After the Lahore session of the Congress in , Nehru gradually emerged as the paramount leader of the Indian independence movement.
Gandhi stepped back into a more spiritual role. Although Gandhi did not officially designate Nehru his political heir until , the country as early as the mids saw in Nehru the natural successor to Gandhi. Nehru and most of the Congress leaders were initially ambivalent about Gandhi's plan to begin civil disobedience with a satyagraha aimed at the British salt tax. After the protest gathered steam, they realised the power of salt as a symbol. Nehru remarked about the unprecedented popular response, "it seemed as though a spring had been suddenly released".
He had earlier, after addressing a huge meeting and leading a vast procession, ceremoniously manufactured some contraband salt. He was charged with breach of the salt law, tried summarily behind prison walls and sentenced to six months of imprisonment.
He nominated Gandhi to succeed him as Congress President during his absence in jail, but Gandhi declined, and Nehru then nominated his father as his successor. With Nehru's arrest the civil disobedience acquired a new tempo, and arrests, firing on crowds and lathi charges grew to be ordinary occurrences. The Salt Satyagraha succeeded in drawing the attention of the world.
Indian, British, and world opinion increasingly began to recognise the legitimacy of the claims by the Congress party for independence. Nehru considered the salt satyagraha the high-water mark of his association with Gandhi,  and felt that its lasting importance was in changing the attitudes of Indians:. Of course these movements exercised tremendous pressure on the British Government and shook the government machinery.
But the real importance, to my mind, lay in the effect they had on our own people, and especially the village masses. Non-cooperation dragged them out of the mire and gave them self-respect and self-reliance.
They acted courageously and did not submit so easily to unjust oppression; their outlook widened and they began to think a little in terms of India as a whole. It was a remarkable transformation and the Congress, under Gandhi's leadership, must have the credit for it. Nehru elaborated the policies of the Congress and a future Indian nation under his leadership in He declared that the aims of the congress were freedom of religion, right to form associations, freedom of expression of thought, equality before law for every individual without distinction of caste, colour, creed or religion, protection to regional languages and cultures, safeguarding the interests of the peasants and labour, abolition of untouchability, introduction of adult franchise, imposition of prohibition, nationalisation of industries, socialism, and establishment of a secular India.
All these aims formed the core of the "Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy" resolution drafted by Nehru in —31 and were ratified by the All India Congress Committee under Gandhi's leadership. The espousal of socialism as the Congress goal was most difficult to achieve. The trio combined to oust Dr.
Prasad as Congress President in Nehru was elected in his place and held the presidency for two years — After the fall of Bose from the mainstream of Indian politics because of his support of violence in driving the British out of India,  the power struggle between the socialists and conservatives balanced out. However, Sardar Patel died in , leaving Nehru as the sole remaining iconic national leader, and soon the situation became such that Nehru was able to implement many of his basic policies without hindrance.
The conservative right-wing of the Congress composed of India's upper class elites would continue opposing the socialists until the great schism in Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi , was able to fulfill her father's dream by the 42nd amendment of the Indian constitution by which India officially became "socialist" and "secular".
During Nehru's second term as general secretary of the Congress, he proposed certain resolutions concerning the foreign policy of India. He developed good relations with governments all over the world. He firmly placed India on the side of democracy and freedom during a time when the world was under the threat of fascism. He appointed the National Planning Commission in to help in framing such policies. Nehru's visit to Europe in proved to be the watershed in his political and economic thinking.
His real interest in Marxism and his socialist pattern of thought stem from that tour. His subsequent sojourns in prison enabled him to study Marxism in more depth. Interested in its ideas but repelled by some of its methods, he could never bring himself to accept Karl Marx's writings as revealed scripture.
Yet from then on, the yardstick of his economic thinking remained Marxist, adjusted, where necessary, to Indian conditions. When the Congress party under Nehru chose to contest elections and accept power under the Federation scheme, Gandhi resigned from party membership. Gandhi did not disagree with Nehru's move, but felt that if he resigned, his popularity with Indians would cease to stifle the party's membership. When the elections following the introduction of provincial autonomy under the government of India act brought the Congress party to power in a majority of the provinces, Nehru's popularity and power were unmatched.
Nehru declared that the only two parties that mattered in India were the British Raj and Congress. Jinnah's statements that the Muslim League was the third and "equal partner" within Indian politics was widely rejected.
Nehru had hoped to elevate Maulana Azad as the pre-eminent leader of Indian Muslims, but in this, he was undermined by Gandhi, who continued to treat Jinnah as the voice of Indian Muslims. When World War II started, Viceroy Linlithgow had unilaterally declared India a belligerent on the side of the Britain, without consulting the elected Indian representatives. Nehru hurried back from a visit to China, announcing that, in a conflict between democracy and Fascism, "our sympathies must inevitably be on the side of democracy I should like India to play its full part and throw all her resources into the struggle for a new order.
After much deliberation, the Congress under Nehru informed the government that it would co-operate with the British but on certain conditions. First, Britain must give an assurance of full independence for India after the war and allow the election of a constituent assembly to frame a new constitution; second, although the Indian armed forces would remain under the British Commander-in-Chief, Indians must be included immediately in the central government and given a chance to share power and responsibility.
When Nehru presented Lord Linlithgow with the demands, he chose to reject them. A deadlock was reached. On 23 October , the Congress condemned the Viceroy's attitude and called upon the Congress ministries in the various provinces to resign in protest.
Before this crucial announcement, Nehru urged Jinnah and the Muslim League to join the protest but the latter declined. In March Jinnah passed what would come to be known as the "Pakistan Resolution", declaring "Muslims are a nation according to any definition of a nation, and they must have their homelands, their territory and their State.
Nehru angrily declared that "all the old problems Linlithgow made Nehru an offer on 8 October It stated that Dominion status for India was the objective of the British government. However, it referred neither to a date nor method of accomplishment. Only Jinnah got something more precise. In October , Gandhi and Nehru, abandoning their original stand of supporting Britain, decided to launch a limited civil disobedience campaign in which leading advocates of Indian independence were selected to participate one by one.
Nehru was arrested and sentenced to four years' imprisonment. After spending a little more than a year in jail, he was released, along with other Congress prisoners, three days before the bombing of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. When the Japanese carried their attack through Burma now Myanmar to the borders of India in the spring of , the British government, faced by this new military threat, decided to make some overtures to India, as Nehru had originally desired.
Prime Minister Winston Churchill dispatched Sir Stafford Cripps, a member of the war Cabinet who was known to be politically close to Nehru and also knew Jinnah, with proposals for a settlement of the constitutional problem.
As soon as he arrived he discovered that India was more deeply divided than he had imagined. Nehru, eager for a compromise, was hopeful. Jinnah had continued opposing the Congress. Cripps's mission failed as Gandhi would accept nothing less than independence.
Relations between Nehru and Gandhi cooled over the latter's refusal to co-operate with Cripps, but the two later reconciled. On 15 January , Gandhi had stated:. Some say Pandit Nehru and I were estranged.
It will require much more than difference of opinion to estrange us. We had differences from the time we became co-workers and yet I have said for some years and say so now that not Rajaji but Jawaharlal will be my successor.
Gandhi called on the British to leave India; Nehru, though reluctant to embarrass the allied war effort, had no alternative but to join Gandhi. Following the Quit India resolution passed by the Congress party in Bombay now Mumbai on 8 August , the entire Congress working committee, including Gandhi and Nehru, was arrested and imprisoned. Nehru emerged from this—his ninth and last detention—only on 15 June During the period where all of the Congress leadership were in jail, the Muslim League under Jinnah grew in power.
In none of these provinces had the League previously had a majority — only the arrest of Congress members made it possible. With all the Muslim dominated provinces except the Punjab under Jinnah's control, the artificial concept of a separate Muslim State was turning into a reality. However, by , Jinnah's power and prestige were on the wane.
A general sympathy towards the jailed Congress leaders was developing among Muslims, and much of the blame for the disastrous Bengal famine of —44 during which two million died, had been laid on the shoulders of the province's Muslim League government. The numbers at Jinnah's meetings, once counted in thousands soon numbered only a few hundreds. In despair, Jinnah left the political scene for a stay in Kashmir.
His prestige was restored unwittingly by Gandhi, who had been released from prison on medical grounds in May and had met Jinnah in Bombay in September. There he offered the Muslim leader a plebiscite in the Muslim areas after the war to see whether they wanted to separate from the rest of India. Essentially, it was an acceptance of the principle of Pakistan — but not in so many words.
Jinnah demanded that the exact words be said; Gandhi refused and the talks broke down. Jinnah, however, had greatly strengthened his own position and that of the League. The most influential member of Congress had been seen to negotiate with him on equal terms. Other Muslim League leaders, opposed both to Jinnah and to the partition of India, lost strength. Nehru and his colleagues had been released as the Cabinet Mission to India arrived to propose plans for transfer of power. Once elected, Nehru headed an interim government, which was impaired by outbreaks of communal violence and political disorder, and the opposition of the Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah , who were demanding a separate Muslim state of Pakistan.
After failed bids to form coalitions, Nehru reluctantly supported the partition of India , according to a plan released by the British on 3 June He took office as the Prime Minister of India on 15 August, and delivered his inaugural address titled " Tryst with Destiny ".
Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance.
It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity. On 30 January , Gandhi was shot while he was walking to a platform from which he was to address a prayer meeting. The assassin, Nathuram Godse , was a Hindu nationalist with links to the extremist Hindu Mahasabha, who held Gandhi responsible for weakening India by insisting upon a payment to Pakistan.
Nehru addressed the nation through radio:. Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives , and there is darkness everywhere, and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it.
Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more. Perhaps I am wrong to say that; nevertheless, we will not see him again, as we have seen him for these many years, we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not only for me, but for millions and millions in this country. Yasmin Khan argued that Gandhi's death and funeral helped consolidate the authority of the new Indian state under Nehru and Patel.
The Congress tightly controlled the epic public displays of grief over a two-week period—the funeral, mortuary rituals and distribution of the martyr's ashes—as millions participated and hundreds of millions watched. The goal was to assert the power of the government, legitimise the Congress party 's control and suppress all religious para-military groups. Gandhi's death and funeral linked the distant state with the Indian people and made more understand the need to suppress religious parties during the transition to independence for the Indian people.
In later years, there emerged a revisionist school of history which sought to blame Nehru for the partition of India, mostly referring to his highly centralised policies for an independent India in , which Jinnah opposed in favour of a more decentralised India.
In the years following independence, Nehru frequently turned to his daughter Indira to look after him and manage his personal affairs. Indira moved into Nehru's official residence to attend to him and became his constant companion in his travels across India and the world. Indira would virtually become Nehru's chief of staff. Nehru had led the Congress to a major victory in the elections, but his government was facing rising problems and criticism.
Disillusioned by alleged intra-party corruption and bickering, Nehru contemplated resigning but continued to serve. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in aroused criticism for alleged nepotism , although actually Nehru had disapproved of her election, partly because he considered it smacked of "dynasticism"; he said, indeed it was "wholly undemocratic and an undesirable thing", and refused her a position in his cabinet.
In the elections, Nehru led the Congress to victory yet with a diminished majority. Communist and socialist parties were the main beneficiaries although some right wing groups like Bharatiya Jana Sangh also did well. There were four known assassination attempts on Nehru. The first attempt on his life was during partition in while he was visiting North-West Frontier Province now in Pakistan in a car.
Nehru implemented policies based on import substitution industrialization and advocated a mixed economy where the government controlled public sector would co-exist with the private sector.
The government, therefore, directed investment primarily into key public sector industries — steel, iron, coal, and power — promoting their development with subsidies and protectionist policies. The policy of non-alignment during the Cold War meant that Nehru received financial and technical support from both power blocs in building India's industrial base from scratch.
There was substantial industrial development. The volume of exports went up at an annual rate of 2. Under Nehru's leadership, the government attempted to develop India quickly by embarking on agrarian reform and rapid industrialisation. A successful land reform was introduced that abolished giant landholdings, but efforts to redistribute land by placing limits on landownership failed.
Attempts to introduce large-scale cooperative farming were frustrated by landowning rural elites, who formed the core of the powerful right-wing of the Congress and had considerable political support in opposing the efforts of Nehru.
Agricultural production expanded until the early s, as additional land was brought under cultivation and some irrigation projects began to have an effect. The establishment of agricultural universities, modelled after land-grant colleges in the United States, contributed to the development of the economy.
These universities worked with high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice, initially developed in Mexico and the Philippines, that in the s began the Green Revolution, an effort to diversify and increase crop production. At the same time a series of failed monsoons would cause serious food shortages despite the steady progress and increase in agricultural production.
The British Indian Empire, which included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, was divided into two types of territories: Between and about , the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union under Nehru and Sardar Patel. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces.
The Government of India Act, remained the constitutional law of India pending adoption of a new Constitution. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January , made India a sovereign democratic republic. Nehru declared the new republic to be a "Union of States". The constitution of distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature.
The Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, who was usually the ruler of a constituent state, and an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India. The Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The sole Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government.
In December , Nehru appointed the States Reorganisation Commission to prepare for the creation of states on linguistic lines. The commission created a report in recommending the reorganisation of India's states. The distinction between Part A and Part B states was removed, becoming known simply as "states".
A new type of entity, the union territory, replaced the classification as a Part C or Part D state. Nehru stressed commonality among Indians and promoted pan-Indianism. He refused to reorganise states on either religious or ethnic lines. Western scholars have mostly praised Nehru for the integration of the states into a modern republic but the act was not accepted universally in India. Jawaharlal Nehru was a passionate advocate of education for India's children and youth, believing it essential for India's future progress.
His government oversaw the establishment of many institutions of higher learning, including the All India Institute of Medical Sciences , the Indian Institutes of Technology , the Indian Institutes of Management and the National Institutes of Technology.
Nehru also outlined a commitment in his five-year plans to guarantee free and compulsory primary education to all of India's children. For this purpose, Nehru oversaw the creation of mass village enrollment programs and the construction of thousands of schools.
Nehru also launched initiatives such as the provision of free milk and meals to children to fight malnutrition. Adult education centers, vocational and technical schools were also organised for adults, especially in the rural areas. Under Nehru, the Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu law to criminalize caste discrimination and increase the legal rights and social freedoms of women.
Nehru also championed secularism and religious harmony, increasing the representation of minorities in government. Nehru specifically wrote Article 44 of the Indian constitution under the Directive Principles of State Policy which states: Most notably, Nehru allowed Muslims to keep their personal law in matters relating to marriage and inheritance.
Also in the small state of Goa, a civil code based on the old Portuguese Family Laws was allowed to continue, and Muslim Personal law was prohibited by Nehru. This was the result of the annexation of Goa in by India, when Nehru promised the people that their laws would be left intact. This has led to accusations of selective secularism. While Nehru exempted Muslim law from legislation and they remained unreformed, he did pass the Special Marriage Act in The idea behind this act was to give everyone in India the ability to marry outside the personal law under a civil marriage.
As usual the law applied to all of India, except Jammu and Kashmir again leading to accusations of selective secularism. In many respects, the act was almost identical to the Hindu Marriage Act of , which gives some idea as to how secularised the law regarding Hindus had become. The Special Marriage Act allowed Muslims to marry under it and thereby retain the protections, generally beneficial to Muslim women, that could not be found in the personal law.
Under the act polygamy was illegal, and inheritance and succession would be governed by the Indian Succession Act, rather than the respective Muslim Personal Law.
Divorce also would be governed by the secular law, and maintenance of a divorced wife would be along the lines set down in the civil law. Nehru led the faction of the Congress party which promoted Hindi as the lingua-franca of the Indian nation. After an exhaustive and divisive debate with the non-Hindi speakers, Hindi was adopted as the official language of India in with English continuing as an associate official language for a period of fifteen years, after which Hindi would become the sole official language.
Efforts by the Indian Government to make Hindi the sole official language after were not acceptable to many non-Hindi Indian states, who wanted the continued use of English. To allay their fears, Nehru enacted the Official Languages Act in to ensure the continuing use of English beyond The text of the Act did not satisfy the DMK and increased their scepticism that his assurances might not be honoured by future administrations.
The issue was resolved during the premiership of Lal Bahadur Shastri , who under great pressure from Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi , was made to give assurances that English would continue to be used as the official language as long the non-Hindi speaking states wanted. The Official Languages Act was eventually amended in by the Congress Government headed by Indira Gandhi to guarantee the indefinite use of Hindi and English as official languages.
This effectively ensured the current "virtual indefinite policy of bilingualism" of the Indian Republic. Nehru led newly independent India from to , during its first years of independence from British rule. Nehru also maintained good relations with the British Empire.
Under the London Declaration , India agreed that, when it became a republic in January , it would join the Commonwealth of Nations and accept the British monarch as a "symbol of the free association of its independent member nations and as such the Head of the Commonwealth. The reaction back home was favourable; only the far-left and the far-right criticised Nehru's decision.
On the international scene, Nehru was a champion of pacifism and a strong supporter of the United Nations. He pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the US and the USSR. Recognising the People's Republic of China soon after its founding while most of the Western bloc continued relations with Taiwan , Nehru argued for its inclusion in the United Nations and refused to brand the Chinese as the aggressors in their conflict with Korea.
Nehru had promised in to hold a referendum in Kashmir under the auspices of the UN. Kashmir was a disputed territory between India and Pakistan, the two having gone to war with each other over the state in However, as Pakistan failed to pull back troops in accordance with the UN resolution and as Nehru grew increasingly wary of the UN, he declined to hold a plebiscite in His policies on Kashmir and the integration of the state into India was frequently defended in front of the United Nations by his aide, V.
Krishna Menon , a brilliant diplomat who earned a reputation in India for his passionate speeches. Nehru, while a pacifist, was not blind to the political and geostrategic reality of India in While laying the foundation stone of the National Defence Academy in , he stated: It means a lot.
Though it is odd, yet it simply reflects the oddness of life. Though life is logical, we have to face all contingencies, and unless we are prepared to face them, we will go under.
There was no greater prince of peace and apostle of non-violence than Mahatma Gandhi , the Father of the Nation, whom we have lost, but yet, he said it was better to take the sword than to surrender, fail or run away.
We cannot live carefree assuming that we are safe. Human nature is such. We cannot take the risks and risk our hard-won freedom. We have to be prepared with all modern defense methods and a well-equipped army, navy and air force.
Nehru envisioned the developing of nuclear weapons and established the Atomic Energy Commission of India in Bhabha , a nuclear physicist, who was entrusted with complete authority over all nuclear-related affairs and programs and answered only to Nehru himself. Nehru also told Bhabha, and later it was told by Bhabha to Raja Rammanna, that: We should first prove ourselves and then talk of Gandhi, non-violence and a world without nuclear weapons.
Nehru was hailed by many for working to defuse global tensions and the threat of nuclear weapons after the Korean War — He also had pragmatic reasons for promoting de-nuclearisation, fearing that a nuclear arms race would lead to over-militarisation that would be unaffordable for developing countries such as his own.
Nehru ordered the arrest of the Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah in , whom he had previously supported but now suspected of harbouring separatist ambitions; Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replaced him.
Their first formal codification in treaty form was in an agreement between China and India in They were enunciated in the preamble to the "Agreement with exchange of notes on trade and intercourse between Tibet Region of China and India", which was signed at Peking on 29 April Negotiations took place in Delhi from December to April between the Delegation of the PRC Government and the Delegation of the Indian Government on the relations between the two countries with respect to the disputed territories of Aksai Chin and South Tibet.
By , Chinese premier Zhou Enlai had also succeeded in persuading Nehru to accept the Chinese position on Tibet, thus depriving Tibet of a possible ally, and of the possibility of receiving military aid from India. They became widely recognised and accepted throughout the region during the premiership of Indira Gandhi and the 3-year rule of the Janata Party — The role of Nehru, both as Indian Prime Minister and a leader of the Non-Aligned Movement was significant; he tried to be even-handed between the two sides, while denouncing Eden and co-sponsors of the invasion vigorously.
Nehru had a powerful ally in the US president Dwight Eisenhower who, if relatively silent publicly, went to the extent of using America's clout in the International Monetary Fund to make Britain and France back down.
The episode greatly raised the prestige of Nehru and India among the third world nations. During the Suez crisis , Nehru's right-hand man, Menon attempted to persuade a recalcitrant Gamal Nasser to compromise with the West, and was instrumental in moving Western powers towards an awareness that Nasser might prove willing to compromise.
In , Menon was instructed to deliver an unprecedented eight-hour speech defending India's stand on Kashmir; to date, the speech is the longest ever delivered in the United Nations Security Council , covering five hours of the nd meeting on 23 January, and two hours and forty-eight minutes on the 24th, reportedly concluding with Menon's collapse on the Security Council floor.
During the filibuster , Nehru moved swiftly and successfully to consolidate Indian power in Kashmir then under great unrest. Menon's passionate defence of Indian sovereignty in Kashmir enlarged his base of support in India, and led to the Indian press temporarily dubbing him the "Hero of Kashmir". Nehru was then at the peak of his popularity in India; the only minor criticism came from the far-right. Nehru maintained good relations with Britain even after the Suez Crisis. Nehru accepted the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, signing the Indus Waters Treaty in with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region.
After years of failed negotiations, Nehru authorised the Indian Army to invade Portuguese controlled Goa in , and then he formally annexed it to India. It increased his popularity in India, but he was criticised by the communist opposition in India for the use of military force.
The use of military force against Portugal earned him goodwill among the right-wing and far-right groups. From , in a process that accelerated in , Nehru adopted the "Forward Policy" of setting up military outposts in disputed areas of the Sino-Indian border, including in 43 outposts in territory not previously controlled by India.
Later, Pakistan handed over some portion of Kashmir near Siachen controlled by Pakistan since to China. The war exposed the unpreparedness of India's military which could send only 14, troops to the war zone in opposition to the many times larger Chinese army, and Nehru was widely criticised for his government's insufficient attention to defence. In response, Nehru sacked the defence minister V. Krishna Menon and sought US military aid.
Nehru's improved relations with the US under John F. Kennedy proved useful during the war, as in , President of Pakistan then closely aligned with the Americans Ayub Khan was made to guarantee his neutrality in regards to India, who was threatened by "communist aggression from Red China".
Nehru would continue to maintain his commitment to the non-aligned movement despite calls from some to settle down on one permanent ally. The aftermath of the war saw sweeping changes in the Indian military to prepare it for similar conflicts in the future, and placed pressure on Nehru, who was seen as responsible for failing to anticipate the Chinese attack on India.
Under American advice by American envoy John Kenneth Galbraith who made and ran American policy on the war as all other top policy makers in the US were absorbed in coincident Cuban Missile Crisis Nehru refrained, not according to the best choices available, from using the Indian air force to beat back the Chinese advances.
The CIA later revealed that at that time the Chinese had neither the fuel nor runways long enough for using their air force effectively in Tibet. Indians, in general, became highly sceptical of China and its military. Many Indians view the war as a betrayal of India's attempts at establishing a long-standing peace with China and started to question Nehru's usage of the term "Hindi-Chini bhai-bhai" meaning "Indians and Chinese are brothers".
The war also put an end to Nehru's earlier hopes that India and China would form a strong Asian Axis to counteract the increasing influence of the Cold War bloc superpowers. The unpreparedness of the army was blamed on Defence Minister Menon, who "resigned" his government post to allow for someone who might modernise India's military further.
India's policy of weaponisation via indigenous sources and self-sufficiency began in earnest under Nehru, completed by his daughter Indira Gandhi, who later led India to a crushing military victory over rival Pakistan in Toward the end of the war India had increased her support for Tibetan refugees and revolutionaries, some of them having settled in India, as they were fighting the same common enemy in the region.
Nehru ordered the raising of an elite Indian-trained "Tibetan Armed Force" composed of Tibetan refugees, which served with distinction in future wars against Pakistan in and Kennedy, requesting 12 squadrons of fighter jets and a modern radar system. These jets were seen as necessary to beef up Indian air strength so that air-to-air combat could be initiated safely from the Indian perspective bombing troops was seen as unwise for fear of Chinese retaliatory action.
Nehru also asked that these aircraft be manned by American pilots until Indian airmen were trained to replace them. According to former Indian diplomat G Parthasarathy, "only after we got nothing from the US did arms supplies from the Soviet Union to India commence".
Twelve huge C Hercules transports, complete with US crews and maintenance teams, took off for New Delhi to fly Indian troops and equipment to the battle zone. Britain weighed in with Bren and Sten guns, and airlifted tons of arms to India.
Canada prepared to ship six transport planes. Nehru's health began declining steadily after , and he spent months recuperating in Kashmir through Some historians attribute this dramatic decline to his surprise and chagrin over the Sino-Indian War, which he perceived as a betrayal of trust.
He spoke to the doctors who attended on him for a brief while and almost immediately Nehru collapsed. He remained unconscious until he died. His death was announced to Lok Sabha at On 28 May, Nehru was cremated in accordance with Hindu rites at the Shantivan on the banks of the Yamuna , witnessed by 1. Nehru, the man and politician made such a powerful imprint on India that his death on 27 May , left India with no clear political heir to his leadership later Lal Bahadur Shastri succeeded him as the Prime Minister.
The death was announced to the Indian parliament in words similar to Nehru's own at the time of Gandhi's assassination: Described as Hindu Agnostic ,  and styling himself as a " scientific humanist ",  Nehru thought that religious taboos were preventing India from going forward and adapting to modern conditions: The spectacle of what is called religion, or at any rate organised religion, in India and elsewhere, has filled me with horror and I have frequently condemned it and wished to make a clean sweep of it.
Almost always it seemed to stand for blind belief and reaction, dogma and bigotry, superstition, exploitation and the preservation of vested interests. In his autobiography, he analysed Christianity  and Islam ,  and their impact on India.
He wanted to model India as a secular country ; his secularist policies remain a subject of debate. Nehru married Kamala Kaul in Their only daughter Indira was born a year later in Kamala gave birth to a boy in November , but he lived for only a week. They had two sons — Rajiv b. After Kamala's death, Nehru, as a widower, was alleged to have had relationships with many women.
As India's first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a major role in shaping modern India's government and political culture along with sound foreign policy. He is praised for creating a system providing universal primary education,  reaching children in the farthest corners of rural India.
Nehru's education policy is also credited for the development of world-class educational institutions such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences ,  Indian Institutes of Technology ,  and the Indian Institutes of Management.
In addition, Nehru's stance as an unfailing nationalist led him to also implement policies which stressed commonality among Indians while still appreciating regional diversities. This proved particularly important as post-Independence differences surfaced since British withdrawal from the subcontinent prompted regional leaders to no longer relate to one another as allies against a common adversary.
While differences of culture and, especially, language threatened the unity of the new nation, Nehru established programs such as the National Book Trust and the National Literary Academy which promoted the translation of regional literatures between languages and also organised the transfer of materials between regions.
In pursuit of a single, unified India, Nehru warned, "Integrate or perish. Historian Ramachandra Guha writes, "[had] Nehru retired in he would be remembered as not just India's best prime minister, but as one of the great statesmen of the modern world. In his lifetime, Jawaharlal Nehru enjoyed an iconic status in India and was widely admired across the world for his idealism and statesmanship.
His birthday, 14 November is celebrated in India as Bal Divas " Children's Day " in recognition of his lifelong passion and work for the welfare, education and development of children and young people. Nehru remains a popular symbol of the Congress Party which frequently celebrates his memory.
Jawaharlal Nehru Essay 1 ( words) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was the first prime minister of the India. He was born on 14 th of November in the year in the Allahabad. The name of his father was Moti Lai Nehru who was a prominent lawyer.
ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this essay on Jawaharlal Nehru ( A.D. – A.D.) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of Independent India was also the architect of modern India. He was born great and also achieved greatness by his vision, hard labour, sincerity, honesty, patriotism and great intellectual powers. He virtually died in harness.
The architect of modern India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14, in Allahabad.. Moti Lai Nehru, his father was a great lawyer. His mother’s name was Swarup Rani. Nehru’s initial education was completed at home. But at the age of 15, he was sent to the most expensive school Harrow in England. Mar 09, · Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru the first prime minister of India was a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence. With Mahatma Gandhi, he paved the road for Indian independence. His father Motilal Nehru was a prominent lawyer, an activist in Indian Independence Movement and a very important leader of Indian national congress/5(11).
Long Essay on Jawaharlal Nehru for Children, School Students, College Students, Graduate Students and others. Find long essay on Jawaharlal Nehru in English language for Students and Professionals. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. We have provided a useful articles or essay on Pa.