Bullying can have a lasting effect on a person's mental health: A new study finds that children who were bullied frequently when they were 8 years old were more likely to develop a psychiatric disorder that needed treatment as an adult, compared with kids who were not bullied.
The scientists also found strong evidence that being bullied as a child puts kids at high risk for depression as a young adult, according to the study, published online today Dec. The findings suggest that being victimized by bullying in early childhood increases the risk of depressive disorders that need psychiatric treatment later in life, said study author Dr.
Andre Sourander, a professor of child psychiatry at the University of Turku in Finland. Previous studies have found a link between bullying and a higher risk of mental health problems during childhood, such as low self-esteem , poor school performance, depression and an increased risk for suicide. But less is known about the long-term psychological health of adults who, as children, were bullies or victims of bullying.
Studies of childhood bullying with long-term follow-ups from the early school years through adulthood are lacking, Sourander said. Wolke D, Lereya ST. Bullying involvement in primary school and common health problems. Arch Dis Child ; Bullied children and psychosomatic problems: Being bullied during childhood and the prospective pathways to self-harm in late adolescence. Bullying victimisation and risk of self harm in early adolescence: Involvement in bullying and suicide-related behavior at 11 years: Cyber and traditional bullying victimization as a risk factor for mental health problems and suicidal ideation in adolescents.
PLoS One ; 9: Nakamoto J, Schwartz D. Is peer victimization associated with academic achievement? Soc Dev ; Victimization in the peer group and children's academic functioning. J Educ Psychol ; Longitudinal links between childhood peer victimization, internalizing and externalizing problems, and academic functioning: Bullying as a longitudinal predictor of adolescent dating violence.
J Adolesc Health Vaillancourt T, McDougall P. The link between childhood exposure to violence and academic achievement: Bullying victimization in youths and mental health problems: Bullying among young adolescents: The predictive efficiency of school bullying versus later offending: Crim Behav Ment Health ; Peer victimization during adolescence and risk for anxiety disorders in adulthood: Depress Anxiety ; Adult health outcomes of childhood bullying victimization: Am J Psychiatry ; Impact of bullying in childhood on adult health, wealth, crime, and social outcomes.
Psychol Sci ; Bullying at age eight and criminality in adulthood: Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; Bender D, Losel F. Bullying at school as a predictor of delinquency, violence and other anti-social behaviour in adulthood.
Childhood bullies and victims and their risk of criminality in late adolescence: What is the early adulthood outcome of boys who bully or are bullied in childhood? Childhood bullying as a risk for later depression and suicidal ideation among Finnish males. J Affect Disord ; Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood. Is involvement in school bullying associated with general health and psychosocial adjustment outcomes in adulthood? Childhood bullying behaviors at age eight and substance use at age 18 among males.
A nationwide prospective study. Addict Behav ; The association of suicide and bullying in childhood to young adulthood: Can J Psychiatry ; Childhood bullying behaviors as a risk for suicide attempts and completed suicides: A population-based birth cohort study.
Brown S, Taylor K. Bullying, education and earnings: Econ Educ Rev ; Childhood bullying and becoming a young father in a national cohort of Finnish boys. Scand J Psychol ; Childhood bullying as a predictor for becoming a teenage mother in Finland. Peer victimization in fifth grade and health in tenth grade. Social cognition and bullying: Social inadequacy or skilled manipulation? A discordant monozygotic twin design shows blunted cortisol reactivity among bullied children.
Serotonin transporter gene moderates the development of emotional problems among children following bullying victimization. Mol Psychiatry ; Cortisol reactivity to social stress in adolescents: Psychological stress and the human immune system: Psychol Bull ; C-reactive protein concentration and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and mortality: Association of markers of systemic inflammation, C reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and fibrinogen, with socioeconomic status. J Epidemiol Community Health ; The influence of social hierarchy on primate health.
Is There a universal positivity bias in attributions? A meta-analytic review of individual, developmental, and cultural differences in the self-serving attributional bias. Estimating the prevalence of young people absent from school due to bullying. Nat Centre Soc Res ; 1: National Centre for Social Research; http: National Foundation for Educational Research.
Pre-school peer victimisation increases the risk of anxiety disorders in first grade. Victims showed an increased risk of developing BPD symptoms. Monozygotic twins who had been bullied had more internalising symptoms compared with their co-twin who had not been bullied. Being bullied increased the risk of psychotic experiences.
Children and adolescents who are bullied have a higher risk for psychosomatic problems such as headache, stomach ache, backache, sleeping difficulties, tiredness and dizziness. A significant association was found between peer victimisation, poorer academic functioning and absenteeism only in fifth grade. Direct bullying, in sixth grade, predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by eighth grade.
No significant relationship was found between victimisation and anti-social behaviour. Victimised adolescents especially pure victims displayed a higher prevalence of agoraphobia, generalised anxiety and panic disorder in young adulthood. All types of frequent victimisation increased the risk of depression and internalising problems. They need to feel in more control over their moods and urges. They need to feel again that if they set their mind to something that they can hope to accomplish it.
These are not modest goals, by any chance, but they are the sorts of things that bullying victims need to think about working on. I'll refer people to our topic centers on Depression and Anger Management for ideas about how these problems can be treated. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is likely to be of particular utility with regard to depression and anger that is secondary to having been bullied because mood problems that have originated in this way are very likely to have come into being as a result of victims having become convinced that they are worthless and incompetent.
In the language of cognitive behavioral therapy, these would be thought of as dysfunctional core beliefs which could be addressed and repudiated using cognitive restructuring techniques that encourage people to closely examine such beliefs and dispute them when they are found to contain exaggerations and distortions which these sorts of beliefs surely will.
Social withdrawal problems and social anxiety also can be very profitably addressed within the context of cognitive therapy. One of the really nice things about a therapy setting is that role playing can take place between therapist and patient so as to provide anxious patients with opportunity to practice and improve how they will interact in feared but desired social situations.
When basic social fears and skill deficits have been addressed, it should become easier for socially withdrawn people to find the connections they need to finally feel fundamentally accepted by others. I typically hate the overused word "empowered", but I'm going to use it here, because it really fits here.
People who have been bullied have been fundamentally dis-empowered. Their feelings of personal safety have been violated and their belief in their own competency and adequacy has been brought into question.
Such people may exist in a state of perpetual avoidance and paralysis. In order to feel good about themselves, they will need to break through that paralysis and engage in something that helps them feel like they are gaining in power. Not power over others, but power over themselves. No other people can do this for them. Each paralyzed person has to decide to empower themselves. There are a million avenues one can go in to fulfill an empowerment goal, the one that is right for any given person being a function of that person's talents and opportunities.
Anger can be productively funneled into a competitive endeavor such as education, business, sports, gaming or some other means of becoming excellent or a creative expression.
Fears can be faced down and courage can be found. I, as author of this essay, cannot offer specifics on how this can be accomplished as the right path for each person will be individual, but I can say that it is more or less as simple as picking out a goal you desire to accomplish which will assert yourself and then deciding to make it happen.
As with any self-improvement goal, it is good to start small, and to dissect larger goals into their smallest possible elements, so that each step you take on the way to a big goal is manageable.
You can read more about this process in our Psychological Self-Tools self-help book. I'll end here with an appeal for comments and contributions. Have I missed anything important with regard to being bullied, in your opinion and experience?
What are your own experiences with having been bullied? How has bullying shaped your life, for better or for worse? What are the problems that you developed as a result of having been bullied, and how have you managed to address them?
What messages can you give to young people who are being bullied today. What would you have done differently if you could do it over? The more people who contribute to this essay, the more useful of a resource it can become. For those seeking addiction treatment for themselves or a loved one, the MentalHelp. Our helpline is offered at no cost to you and with no obligation to enter into treatment.
With that in mind, would you like to learn about some of the best options for treatment in the country? Bullying is Abuse Here's a few statements to get us started: Bullying Causes Long-Term Emotional Damage The experience of being bullied can end up causing lasting damage to victims. The following list, culled from my reading on this subject, summarizes some of the effects bullying victims may experience: In the short term: Anger Depression Anxious avoidance of settings in which bullying may occur.
In the long term: Reduced occupational opportunities Lingering feelings of anger and bitterness, desire for revenge. Difficulty trusting people Interpersonal difficulties, including fear and avoidance of new social situations Increased tendency to be a loner Perception of self as easy to victimize, overly sensitive, and thin-skinned Self-esteem problems don't think well of self Increased incidence of continued bullying and victimization A few interesting observations of factors that seem to lessen the negative impact that bullying has on people have come to my attention during the process of cataloging the ways that bullying can mess you up.
Perception of Control A Spanish college student sample study suggests that there is a direct relationship between victim's perception of control over their bullying experience and the extent of long term difficulties they experience as a result of bullying.
Early Exposure The age at which kids are first bullied seems to be important according to some research. Social Support Finally, multiple researchers point to the protective effect that a good social support network has with regard to bully victim's short and long term outcomes. Undoing the Damage If the primary damage that bullying causes is damage to identity and self-esteem, then taking steps to repair identity and self-esteem are in order for people looking to heal from past bullying experiences.
Introduction And Types Of Depression. Historical And Current Understandings. Biology, Psychology And Sociology. Treatment - Medication And Psychotherapy.
It's a rather disturbing thing. Of course there are emotional effects that happen at the time of the bullying, but I want to focus on the long-term effects that persist into our adult lives. A study came out in that looked at the the long-term effects of bullying in a way that hasn't been done before.
Apr 28, · The long-term effects of being bullied by other kids are worse than being abused by an adult, new research shows. Among a large group of children in England, those who were bullied were 60% more likely to have mental health problems as adults than were those who suffered physical, emotional or sexual abuse.
Feb 20, · But most studies on the effects of bullying focus on the childhood period. "The question for our study is what happens long-term, down the road, after they're no longer being bullied and after they're no longer children," Copeland told LiveScience. But less is known about the long-term psychological health of adults who, as children, were bullies or victims of bullying. Studies of childhood bullying with long-term follow-ups from the early school years through adulthood are lacking, Sourander said.
The long-term effects of bullying on a child can include problems with self-esteem and anxiety. It is important to intervene early if you suspect that bullying is taking place. It is important to intervene early if you suspect that bullying is taking place. • Risk of spousal or child abuse • Risk of antisocial behavior • Substance abuse • Less likely to be educated or employed. Childhood bullying has serious effects on both short and long-term health of children. Immediate intervention and long-term follow-up can help mediate some of these effects.