Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research. The key agreement here is the Declaration of Helsinki. The Nuremberg Code is a former agreement, but with many still important notes. Research in the social sciences presents a different set of issues than those in medical research  and can involve issues of researcher and participant safety, empowerment and access to justice.
When research involves human subjects, obtaining informed consent from them is essential. In many disciplines, Western methods of conducting research are predominant. The increasing participation of indigenous peoples as researchers has brought increased attention to the lacuna in culturally-sensitive methods of data collection.
Non-Western methods of data collection may not be the most accurate or relevant for research on non-Western societies. Periphery scholars face the challenges of exclusion and linguicism in research and academic publication. As the great majority of mainstream academic journals are written in English, multilingual periphery scholars often must translate their work to be accepted to elite Western-dominated journals.
Peer review is a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is often used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Usually, the peer review process involves experts in the same field who are consulted by editors to give a review of the scholarly works produced by a colleague of theirs from an unbiased and impartial point of view, and this is usually done free of charge.
The tradition of peer reviews being done for free has however brought many pitfalls which are also indicative of why most peer reviewers decline many invitations to review.
The open access movement assumes that all information generally deemed useful should be free and belongs to a "public domain", that of "humanity". For instance, most indigenous communities consider that access to certain information proper to the group should be determined by relationships.
There is alleged to be a double standard in the Western knowledge system. On the one hand, "digital right management" used to restrict access to personal information on social networking platforms is celebrated as a protection of privacy, while simultaneously when similar functions are utilised by cultural groups i. Even though Western dominance seems to be prominent in research, some scholars, such as Simon Marginson, argue for "the need [for] a plural university world".
This could be due to changes in funding for research both in the East and the West. Focussed on emphasizing educational achievement, East Asian cultures, mainly in China and South Korea, have encouraged the increase of funding for research expansion.
In several national and private academic systems, the professionalisation of research has resulted in formal job titles. In present-day Russia, the former Soviet Union and in some post-Soviet states the term researcher Russian: The term is also sometimes translated as research fellow , research associate , etc.
Academic publishing is a system that is necessary for academic scholars to peer review the work and make it available for a wider audience.
The system varies widely by field and is also always changing, if often slowly. Most academic work is published in journal article or book form. There is also a large body of research that exists in either a thesis or dissertation form. These forms of research can be found in databases explicitly for theses and dissertations. In publishing, STM publishing is an abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and medicine. Most established academic fields have their own scientific journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields.
The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research vary greatly between fields, from the print to the electronic format. A study suggests that researchers should not give great consideration to findings that are not replicated frequently. Since about the early s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common.
Presently, a major trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access. Most funding for scientific research comes from three major sources: These are managed primarily through universities and in some cases through military contractors. Many senior researchers such as group leaders spend a significant amount of their time applying for grants for research funds.
These grants are necessary not only for researchers to carry out their research but also as a source of merit. The Social Psychology Network provides a comprehensive list of U. Government and private foundation funding sources. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the search for knowledge. For other uses, see Research disambiguation.
For other uses, see Researcher disambiguation. For Wikipedia's policy against directly including in articles the results of editor-conducted research, see Wikipedia: Original research redirects here. For the Wikipedia policy, see Wikipedia: This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article needs to be updated.
This subsection's claims are potentially outdated in the "digital age" given that near-total penetration of Web access among scholars worldwide enables any scholar[s] to submit papers to any journal anywhere.
Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Academic ranks , Academics , and Scientists.
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You say that someone does , conducts , or carries out research. You can refer to the research that someone is doing as their research or their researches. You normally only use researches after a possessive form such as my , his , or Gordon's. Research methods - definition of Research methods by The Free Dictionary https: Related to Research methods: Research methodology , Research design.
Careful study of a given subject, field, or problem, undertaken to discover facts or principles. An act or period of such study: To study something thoroughly so as to present in a detailed, accurate manner: To do research for: All effort directed toward increased knowledge of natural phenomena and environment and toward the solution of problems in all fields of science. This includes basic and applied research. Switch to new thesaurus.
A seeking of knowledge, data, or the truth about something: Forschung recherchieren Erforschung forschen.
Research methods synonyms, Research methods pronunciation, Research methods translation, English dictionary definition of Research methods. n. 1. Careful study of a given subject, field, or problem, undertaken to discover facts or principles. 2. An act or period of such study: her researches of.
Definition of Research In order to plan and carry out research, it is necessary for you to know what we mean by research-in general, as well as in the specialized fields of language teaching and language acquisition.
Glossary of Key Terms This glossary provides definitions of many of the terms used in the guides to conducting qualitative and quantitative research. The definitions were developed by members of the research methods seminar (E) taught by Mike Palmquist in the s and s. Definition of research methodology: The process used to collect information and data for the purpose of making business decisions. The methodology may include publication research, interviews, surveys and other research techniques, and.
Quantitative Research Definition: Quantitative research, in marketing, is a stimulating and highly educational technique to gather information from existing and potential customers using sampling methods and sending out online surveys, online polls, questionnaires etc., the results of which can be. One definition of research is used by the OECD, "Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications." Big data has brought big impacts on research methods so that now many researchers do not .